Infertility is a condition in which a couple is unable to conceive a child after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. It is a common problem, affecting approximately 10-15% of couples worldwide. Infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, both male and female, and it can be a source of great emotional stress for those affected. In this article, we will explore the causes, diagnosis, and treatment options for infertility.

Causes of Infertility

Infertility can be caused by a number of factors, including:

  1. Male factors: Male infertility accounts for approximately 30-40% of cases. It can be caused by low sperm count, poor sperm motility or morphology, or blockages in the reproductive tract.
  2. Female factors: Female infertility accounts for approximately 40-50% of cases. It can be caused by ovulatory disorders, tubal blockages, uterine abnormalities, or endometriosis.
  3. Combined factors: In some cases, both male and female factors may contribute to infertility.
  4. Unknown factors: In some cases, the cause of infertility may be unknown.

Diagnosis of Infertility

The diagnosis of infertility typically involves a medical history and physical examination, as well as a number of tests and procedures, including:

  1. Semen analysis: This test evaluates the quality and quantity of sperm produced by the male partner.
  2. Ovulation testing: This involves monitoring the female partner’s ovulation through blood tests or ultrasound.
  3. Hysterosalpingogram (HSG): This is a procedure that uses dye and X-rays to evaluate the female partner’s fallopian tubes and uterus.
  4. Laparoscopy: This is a surgical procedure that allows a doctor to view the female partner’s reproductive organs and look for any abnormalities.
  5. Genetic testing: This may be recommended for couples with a family history of genetic disorders.

Treatment of Infertility

The treatment of infertility depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Some common treatment options include:

  1. Fertility medications: These medications are used to stimulate ovulation or improve sperm production.
  2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI): This procedure involves placing sperm directly into the female partner’s uterus during ovulation.
  3. In vitro fertilization (IVF): This involves fertilizing the female partner’s eggs with the male partner’s sperm in a laboratory, and then transferring the resulting embryos to the uterus.
  4. Surgery: Surgery may be recommended to correct tubal blockages, remove uterine fibroids or polyps, or correct other abnormalities.
  5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): This includes a variety of procedures, such as IVF, that can help couples overcome infertility.

Emotional Impact of Infertility

Infertility can be a source of great emotional stress for those affected. It can cause feelings of sadness, anger, guilt, and anxiety. It can also put a strain on relationships and lead to social isolation. It is important for those struggling with infertility to seek emotional support from family, friends, or a mental health professional.


Infertility is a common condition that affects many couples worldwide. It can be caused by a variety of factors, both male and female, and can be a source of great emotional stress. Fortunately, there are a variety of treatment options available, including medications, surgery, and assisted reproductive technologies, that can help couples overcome infertility and achieve their dreams of starting a family.


Dr Anil Agarwal

MBBS, MS, DNB (Urology)

Director Urology

Dr Unique Tyagi

MBBS, MD, DNB, DM (Gastroenterology)

Senior Consultant Gastroenterologist

Dr Shashi Bhushan Gupta

MBBS, DPM (Psychiatry)

Senior Consultant Psychiatrist

Dr Chandan Deka


HOD Department of Surgery Senior Advanced Laparoscopic Surgeon

Dr Sunil Aggarwal


Senior Consultant Surgery

Dr Priyanka


Senior Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Ridhi Bajaj


Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Manisha Aggarwal


Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Bharat Jindal


Senior Consultant Plastic Surgeon

Dr Rahul Bhargava


Senior Consultant ENT

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