Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located between the bladder and the penis. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that affects men, with over 190,000 cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for prostate cancer.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but there are several risk factors that can increase a person’s likelihood of developing the disease. Some common risk factors include:

  1. Age: Prostate cancer is more common in older men, with most cases being diagnosed in men over the age of 65.
  2. Family history: Men with a family history of prostate cancer are more likely to develop the disease themselves.
  3. Race: African American men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than men of other races.
  4. Obesity: Men who are obese are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.
  5. Hormonal factors: Men with high levels of testosterone may be at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, prostate cancer may not cause any noticeable symptoms. As the cancer grows and spreads, however, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  1. Urinary problems: Prostate cancer can cause urinary problems such as difficulty urinating, frequent urination, and weak urine flow.
  2. Blood in the urine or semen: Prostate cancer can cause blood to appear in the urine or semen.
  3. Painful ejaculation: Men with prostate cancer may experience pain or discomfort during ejaculation.
  4. Pain in the lower back, hips, or pelvis: Prostate cancer can cause pain in the lower back, hips, or pelvis as the cancer spreads to nearby tissues and organs.
  5. Erectile dysfunction: Prostate cancer can cause erectile dysfunction or difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection.

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

If a person is experiencing symptoms of prostate cancer, a healthcare provider may perform several tests to diagnose the condition. Some common diagnostic tests for prostate cancer include:

  1. Digital rectal exam: During a digital rectal exam, a healthcare provider will insert a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities in the prostate gland.
  2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. High levels of PSA may indicate the presence of prostate cancer.
  3. Biopsy: A biopsy involves removing a small sample of prostate tissue for examination under a microscope. A biopsy is typically performed if the PSA test or digital rectal exam indicates the presence of prostate cancer.

Treatment of Prostate Cancer

The treatment for prostate cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the age and overall health of the patient, and the patient’s preferences. Some common treatment options for prostate cancer include:

  1. Watchful waiting: In some cases, a healthcare provider may recommend watchful waiting, which involves monitoring the cancer and delaying treatment until symptoms develop or the cancer begins to grow.
  2. Surgery: Surgery involves removing the prostate gland and any cancerous tissue surrounding it. Surgery is typically only recommended for early-stage prostate cancer.
  3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It can be used to treat both early-stage and advanced-stage prostate cancer.
  4. Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy involves blocking or suppressing the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of prostate cancer.
  5. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses powerful drugs to kill cancer cells. It is typically only used for advanced-stage prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer Prevention

Prostate cancer cannot be prevented in 100% of cases, since there are multiple risk factors that can lead to its appearance. In any case, there are some guidelines that can reduce the chances of suffering from this (and many other) malignant neoplasms. Some of them are the following:

  • Follow a healthy diet: according to studies, obese patients are more likely to have a worse diagnosis if they have prostate cancer. Eating a variety of foods, little processed and low in harmful fats helps to control weight and avoid many diseases.
  • Choosing natural foods (instead of supplements): There is not enough evidence to indicate a reduction in risk if certain dietary supplements are consumed. It is best to go to natural diets and consult with the doctor any pharmacological approach that is going to be carried out.
  • Exercise: It is recommended that a healthy adult at least get 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity per week.


Dr Anil Agarwal

MBBS, MS, DNB (Urology)

Director Urology

Dr Unique Tyagi

MBBS, MD, DNB, DM (Gastroenterology)

Senior Consultant Gastroenterologist

Dr Shashi Bhushan Gupta

MBBS, DPM (Psychiatry)

Senior Consultant Psychiatrist

Dr Chandan Deka


HOD Department of Surgery Senior Advanced Laparoscopic Surgeon

Dr Sunil Aggarwal


Senior Consultant Surgery

Dr Priyanka


Senior Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Ridhi Bajaj


Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Manisha Aggarwal


Consultant Gynaecology

Dr Bharat Jindal


Senior Consultant Plastic Surgeon

Dr Rahul Bhargava


Senior Consultant ENT

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